PostTraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)

mental disorder wherein a person was exposed to actual or threatened death, serious injury and/or sexual violence, as a result of which the following symptoms appear after one month:

  1. Intrusion/reliving symptoms (eg. nightmares, hallucinations)
  2. Avoidance of stimuli/memories of the event
  3. Feeling/thinking badly about oneself or the world
  4. Hyperactivity/arousal (eg. irritability, attention problems)
  5. Problems with memory loss

Definition via the DSM-5

Public Will Campaign

Public will campaigns can be defined as organized, strategic initiatives designed to legitimize and garner public support for social problems as a mechanism of achieving policy action or change. Public will campaigns can seek to influence policy makers directly or through an indirect path of mobilizing key groups of constituents to take political action.

Definition via the article entitled Mobilizing Public Will for Social Change by Salmen, Post, & Christensen


IWES' definition of resilience contains a multifaceted constellation of four core concepts:

  1. A multidimensional process that can be predicted 
  2. A reflection of individual capacity formed over a lifetime of exposures and experiences
  3. An outcome of a given physical and social ecology to provide the resources necessary to sustain wellbeing
  4. An expression of the sociopolitical context in which individuals live and communities are formed

When applying this definition to people of color, signs of resilience and intentional acts of resistance to oppression are often intertwined. This is particularly important in situations where oppression is the root to chronic adversity, impeding efforts by people of color to bounce forward. 

Definition via IWES' Resiliency White Paper

restorative justice

Restorative Justice is a theory of justice that emphasizes repairing the harm caused by criminal behavior. It is best accomplished through cooperative processes that allow all willing stakeholders to meet, although other approaches are available when that is impossible. This can lead to transformation of people, relationships and communities.

The foundational principles of restorative justice have been summarized as follows:

  • Crime causes harm and justice should focus on repairing that harm
  • The people most affected by the crime should be able to participate in its resolution
  • The responsibility of the government is to maintain order and of the community to build peace

his leads to four actions:

  • Inclusion of all parties
  • Encountering the other side
  • Making amends for the harm
  • Reintegration of the parties into their communities

Definition via the Centre for Justice & Reconciliation

Trauma Informed Care (TIC)

A program, organization, or system that is trauma-informed:

  1. Realizes the widespread impact of trauma and understands potential paths for recovery;
  2. Recognizes the signs and symptoms of trauma in clients, families, staff, and others involved with the system;
  3. Responds by fully integrating knowledge about trauma into policies, procedures, and practices; and
  4. Seeks to actively resist re-traumatization.

Definition via the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA)